Open Enrolment Program
A significant part of products and services available for consumption are provided by Multinational Enterprises (MNEs). Depending on the sector, such as automotive or consumer electronics, they supply most of them. Some MNEs configure a global monopoly – Google, for example. The revenues of several MNEs are higher than the GDP of many countries. In 2018, the revenues of Walmart reached $ 500B, which would place it as the world’s 26th largest economy, equal to the GDP of Thailand of $485B. MNEs have technology, money, access to other markets, hire and train local people, etc., besides paying taxes. They have a lot of power, causing resentment and friction in some host countries.
Besides these aspects, there is a lot of discussion about protectionism and nationalist policies (Trump’s protectionist policy, Brexit, etc.), digital integration, the strong position of Asian economies and businesses, etc. Globalization 4.0 was the theme of Davos 2019.
For these and other reasons, understanding the international arena and the advantages and disadvantages of investing (or disinvesting) and operating abroad is imperative.
In this program, participants will expand their knowledge about the motivations, international context and ways to go abroad; and the strategies and governance models of MNEs. In sequence, they will understand the appetite for and perils of investing and operating abroad.
Specifically, Latin American (LATAM) countries’ weak institutions are clearly related with their lack of competitiveness, directly impacting the performance of their companies, according to the World Economic Forum (WEF).
In the 2018 report, the LATAM regional institutional index had the worst performance of the six regions analyzed. With regard to Brazil specifically, the Report cites examples such as the lack of integration of Brazil in the global market, high import taxes, the existence of policies that generate distortions (subsidies), etc.
Despite these problems, multinationals from Latin American countries have challenged major multinationals from developed countries, such as Arcor from Argentina, Stefanini from Brazil, Cencosud from Chile, and Femsa from Mexico, among other examples.
In recent years, LATAM countries have continued to receive investments from countries such as Spain, Portugal, China and others. The LATAM countries have also made some investments abroad, such as the purchase of Canadian Inco by Vale, the investment by the Chilean group Cencosud in various undertakings in Brazil, etc.
At the same time, unfortunately, some companies are leaving the region for a variety of reasons. Ford is significantly reducing its operations in Mexico and Brazil, Ralph Lauren left Argentina, Accessorize, Kirin, Geely Motors, Mahinda, HSBC, Korean Airlines, Fnac, Lush and Citi, Aston Martin have sold or finalized their operations in Brazil. The problems in Venezuela have led Citi, Kimberly-Clark, Kraft Heinz, Bridgestone, Pepsico, Gol, Latam, Aeromexico, GM, Kellog, Pirelli and Coca Cola, among others, to leave the country.